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15 April 2010

Hukum Adat dan Undang-Undang Bandar Bima

Hukum Adat dan Undang-Undang Bandar Bima

Hukum Adat dan Undang-Undang Bandar Bima
Hj. Siti Maryam R. Salahuddin
Mataram, Langge
2nd Edition, September 2004
v + 200 pages
1.1 x 20 cm

This is another book which attempts to introduce the hadat (customary) law which used to be applied in the Kingdom/ Sultanate of Bima, West Nusa Tenggara. It is also a transliteration by a member of the royal family namely Siti Maryam R Salahuddin. She is the grand daughter of Sultan Abdul Khair II, the last Sultan of the Sultanate of Bima (1951-2001).

Transliteration is fundamental since the manuscript of hadat law of the Kingdom/ Sultanane of Bima is written in Arabic script and Malay language which are difficult to be understood by the people of Bima nowadays, even by the descendants of Bima Kingdom themselves. The transliteration aims for a simple approach, in which it tries to reveal the content and the meaning of hadat law manuscript. Transliteration is conducted only to several documents since research on the hadat law manuscript takes time and special skill.

The Kingdom Turns to a Sultanate

History says that Bima was previously named Dana Mbojo. There had been small kingdoms in which the authority was in a single ruler named Ncuhi. In time, these small kingdoms merged into a larger kingdom under the authority of a king entitled Rumata Ma Sangaji Mbojo which means Our Majesty King of Bima. During this period, the government system was taken by a hadat chief called Raja Bicara or in Bima language it was called Ruma Bicara (bicara = custom) entitled Tureli Nggampo.

The hadat law of Bima Kingdom was summarized in the kingdom manuscript known as “Bo Sangaji Kai”. The manuscript had been edited into a book by the same title by a French scholar named Henri Chambert-Loir (2004).

In its development, Bima Kingdom underwent an imposing upheaval due to its resistance against the Dutch (VOC) and the other neighboring kingdoms such as the Kingdoms of Sumbawa, Lombok, Bali and Gowa of South Sulawesi. The climax was in the 16th – 17th centuries when Bima Kingdom yielded to the authority of Gowa Kingdom which embraced Islam.

The Islamic influence of Gowa Kingdom turned the administrative system of Bima Kingdom into a sultanate, thus, the title of king changed into sultan. However, Bima people still called their sultan as Ruma Sangaji Mbojo which, in their local language, means the king. The change also happened to the principles of the hadat law of Bima. Previously, the hadat law of Bima was based on the tradition of Bima ancestor, then it was based on the holy Koran and the Prophet’s quotes (Islamic principles). The title for the hadat chief changed from Ruma Bicara into Wazir Al Muazam. It was interesting that even Bima had changed into a sultanate, the title for the hadat chief remained Raja Bicara.

The Sultanate of Bima as a Grand Sultanate

In this book, there are several transliterated manuscripts:

  1. the manuscript on the law of speech of Bandar Bima code
  2. the manuscript on the articles applied in Manggarai territory
  3. the manuscript on the renewal of the agreement and oath-taking of the late Sultan Abdul Kahir with Malay descendants
  4. the manuscript on the regulation of services for accidents and permission
  5. the manuscript on the articles from the treaty with Admiral Speelman in 1669
  6. the manuscript on the law of speech which reimposes Islamic religious codes and the hadat law of Bima imposed by Sultan Abdul Kahir
  7. the manuscript on irrigation in Bima (Bima hadat)

The geographic position of Bima involves oceans. Bima borders with Flores sea in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, Sape Strait in the east and Dompu Regency in the west. This strategic position was beneficial for the Sultanate of Bima. The territorial waters served as the sea trade routes for merchants of either domestic or abroad. This historical background is what the book tries to convey and becomes one of the reasons for referring the Sultanate of Bima as a grand sultanate in its period considering its territory which covered Flores and almost all Sumbawa islands.

The grandeur of the Sultanate of Bima was due to the sea routes which enabled it to establish relationships with other kingdoms as well as being potential entrance for other nations. The Sultanate of Bima was very busy and crowded at that time. Thus, the sultanate viewed the importance of hadat law to govern the life of the people and other nations which entered Bima. These trails were obvious in the transliterated hadat law on page 7 – 69.

Researchers of history and culture of Indonesian archipelago are suggested to read this book because there are a lot of important information on the dynamics of the life of the people and Bima Kingdom in the past. The laxness of this book is on the transliteration language which sometimes leads to confusion. Apparently this is due to the transliterator’s lack of ability to find the meaning of the original manuscript. Therefore, readers must be careful. It is suggested that readers analyze the transliterator’s work by comparing the context with the history of the Sultanate of Bima.

Transliterator is fully aware of this laxness. It is shown in his brief account on the Sultanate of Bima from its history, administration system, residence, social economic condition, trade and its advanced development. Despite the laxness, this book is a useful reference for research on the hadat law of the Sultanate of Bima; a Malay sultanate once ruled in the east part of Indonesian archipelago.

Yusuf Efendi

Translation by Apri Widiastuti (trns/35/04-10)

Dibaca : 3545 kali.