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Malay history

Pelalawan Kingdom

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1. The History

a. Pekantua Kingdom (1380-1505 C.E.)

In the first time, the Pelalawan Kingdom was named as Pekantua kingdom. It was derived from the Pematang Tuo district. The former kingdom was composed of what is now called as recent Tolam village, Pelalawan district, Riau province, Indonesia. The first king of the Pekantua Kingdom was Maharaja Indera (1380-1420 C.E.) who built Hyang temple, as his gratitude to God, in the hill of Bukit Tuo (part of Pematang Buluh district or Pematang Lubuk Emas district).

A surplus commodity of the Pelalawan forest product brought the kingdom well-known among its neighbors. In addition, it turned out to be a competitor of the vital harbor in Malacca strait ever since.  As a result, the king of Malacca, Sultan Mansyur Syah (1459-1477 C.E.), aroused to occupy the Pekantua Kingdom in order to strengthen his authority on the eastern coast of Sumatra. Under the rule of Sri Nara Diraja commander, Malacca had beaten the Pekantua.

Maharaja Pura (1420-1445 C.E.), Maharaja Laka (1445-1460 C.E.), and Maharaja Jaya (1480-1505 C.E.) were the succeeding kings of the kingdom after the death of Maharaja Indera. And Maharaja Jaya was the last king of the Pekantua Kingdom before the arrival of Islam. Afterward, the Pekantua Kingdom was changed into Pekantua Kampar.

b. Pekantua Kampar Kingdom (1505-1675 C.E.)

After defeating the Pekantua Kingdom, Sultan Mansyur Syah appointed his son, Munawar Syah, to be the next Pekantua Kampar King. In 1505 C.E., he became de facto ruler of the Pekantua Kingdom until 1515 C.E. Since his royal day, the Pekantua Kingdom was changed into Pekantua Kampar Kingdom.

Islam had grown up in the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom ever since. While this was going on, Raja Abdullah (1511-1515 C.E.), the son of Sultan Munawar Syah, became the next king after the death of his father. At the same time, Sultan Mansyur Syah died in Malacca. As a result, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah I and Sultan Mahmud Syah I became the succeeding kings of Malacca after death of Sultan Munawar Syah. Around 1511 C.E., Malacca had been attacked by Portuguese. This war was forced him (Sultan Mahmud Syah I) to flee to Muar and then to Bintan. Finally, in 1526 C.E., he arrived at the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom.

The capture of Raja Abdullah, when he was helping Malacca to strive against Portuguese, made him to be alienated in Gowa. This situation was a cause for ruler vacuity in the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom. Thus, Sultan Mahmud Syah I, who just came at the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom in 1526 C.E., was appointed immediately as king of Pekantua Kampar Kingdom (1526-1528 C.E.). After the death of Sultan Mahmud Syah I, his son (in his marriage with Tun Fatimah), Raja Ali, had been inaugurated as Pekantua Kampar king who was well-known as Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II (1528-1530 C.E.).

Before leaving Pekanbatu (the capital of Pekantua Kampar), Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II had appointed Mangkubumi Pekantua Kampar, Tun Perkasa (1530-1551 C.E.) who was well-known as Raja Muda Tun Perkasa, as the king of the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom. He then had been replaced by Tun Hitam (1551-1575 C.E.) and Tun Megat (1575-1590 C.E.).

Under the rule of Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah (the grandchild of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II), the Johor Kingdom rapidly developed. This fact aroused Tun Megat, at that time, to send an envoy to Johor Kingdom for asking one of the Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II‘s descendants to become Pekantua Kampar King.

After conciliating with the Pekantua Kampar noblemen, Tun Megat sent the envoy which consisted of Batin Muncak Rantau (Orang Besar Nilo and Napuh), Datuk Patih Jambuano (Orang Besar Delik and Dayun), and Raja Bilang Bungsu (Orang Besar of Kampar coast) to the Johor Kingdom.

Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah approved Tun Megat‘s wish. He sent one of his relatives, Raja Abdurrahman, to become Pekantua Kampar king. In 1590 C.E., Raja Abdurrahman had been inaugurated as Pekantua Kampar King who was well-known as Maharaja Dinda (1590-1630 C.E.). In this period, Tun Megat, who was Raja Muda, had been inaugurated as Mangkubum  inherited the position to his grandfather, Tun Perkasa.            

After the death of Maharaja Dinda, his position had been replaced by Maharaja Lela I who was well-known as Maharaja Lela Utama (1630-1650 C.E.), Maharaja Lela Bangsawan (1650-1675 C.E.), and then Maharaja Lela Utama (1675-1686 C.E.).

c. Tanjung Negeri Kingdom (1675-1725 C.E.)

In the period of Maharaja Lela Utama, the capital of the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom had been moved to Sungai Nilo (Nilo river). Since that time, the kingdom was named as Tanjung Negeri Kingdom and Maharaja Lela Utama had been replaced by his son, Maharaja Wangsa Jaya (1686-1691 C.E.).

In the period of Maharaja Wangsa Jaya, some of Tanjung Negeri regions had been infected by the diseases that caused in the number of the mortality. However, the rulers of the kingdom, at the time, had not intended to dislocate the kingdom‘s capital from Tanjung Negeri. After that, Maharaja Wangsa Jaya died, and his son, Maharaja Muda Lela (1691-1720 C.E.), replaced him. In this period, the will to dislocate the kingdom‘s capital from Tanjung Negeri had not been approved by the rulers of the kingdom. While this situation was still going on, the trading between Kuantan and other kingdoms were run through Sungai Nilo district.

d. Pelalawan Kingdom (1720-1750 C.E.)

Maharaja Dinda II came to the throne (1720-1750 C.E.) following the death of his father, Maharaja Muda Lela. In this period, there was a consensus to dislocate the kingdom‘s capital to Rasau river, an effluent of Kampar river, which far from the downstream of Nilo river.

Around year 1725 C.E., Maharaja Dinda II held a ceremony for dislocation of the capital from Tanjung Negeri to Sungai Rasau. In this ceremony, he (Maharaja Dinda II) announced that the name of the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom had been changed into Pelalawan Kingdom ever since. The name of the Pelalawan was derived from tempat lalauan meaning ‘the substituted place‘. Since that time, the Pekantua Kampar Kingdom‘s name was not used and replaced by the Pelalawan Kingdom. After the death, Maharaja Dinda II had been replaced by his son, Maharaja Lela Bungsu (1750-1775 C.E.).

The internal conflict that occurred in Johor was the main reason for the Pelalawan Kingdom to secede from the Johor‘s authority. In fact, the ruler of the Johor Kingdom that no more came from the Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II descendants. As a result, Sultan Syarif Ali who became the ruler of Siak (1784-1811 C.E.) had demanded the Pelalawan Kingdom to declare the Siak Kingdom as Yang Dipertuan, because he was the inheritor of the Raja Kecil and the son of Sultan Mahmud Syah II. This demand, at the same time, was refused by Maharaja Lela II. As a result, around year 1797-1798 C.E., the Pelalawan Kingdom had been attacked by the Siak Kingdom.          

The first attack which was led by Sayid Syihabuddin had failed. While the second attack that was led by Sayid Abdurrahaman, a young brother of Sultan Syarif Ali, had succeeded in defeating the Pelalawan Kingdom. He then reconciled with the Pelalawan King (Maharaja Lela II) by making the Begito brotherhood (the world and the hereafter brotherhood) in order to keep the genealogy of Johor descendents. Thus, Maharaja Lela II appointed as Orang Besar of the Pelalawan Kingdom with the honorable title ‘Datuk Engku Raja Lela Putera‘. At the same time, Sayid Abdurrahman was appointed as the king of the Pelalawan Kingdom with title ‘Syarif Adburrahman Fakhruddin‘ (1798-1822 C.E.). Since that time, the Pelalawan Kingdom was under the control of the Sayid Abdurrahman‘s descendants and Syarif Ali‘s brothers (Siak Sultanete).      

2. The Kings of the Kingdom

Below are the rulers of the Pelalawan Kingdom before and after the arrival of Islam:

a. Pekantua Kingdom (1380-1505 C.E.)

  1. Maharaja Indera (1380-1420 C.E.)
  2. Maharaja Pura (1420-1445 C.E.)
  3. Maharaja Laka (1445-1460 C.E.)
  4. Maharaja Sysya (1460-1480 C.E.)
  5. Maharaja Jaya (1480-1505 C.E.).

b. Pekantua Kampar Kingdom (1505-1675 C.E.)

  1. Munawar Syah (1505-1511 C.E.)
  2. Raja Abdullah (1511-1515 C.E.)
  3. Sultan Mahmud Syah I (1526-1528 C.E.)
  4. Raja Ali/Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II (1528-1530 C.E.)
  5. Tun Perkasa/ Raja Muda Tun Perkasa (1530-1551 C.E.)
  6. Tun Hitam (1551-1575 C.E.)
  7. Tun Megat (1575-1590 C.E.)
  8. Raja Abdurrahman/Maharaja Dinda (1590-1630 C.E.)
  9. Maharaja Lela I/Maharaja Lela Utama (1630-1650 C.E.)
  10. Maharaja Lela Bangsawan (1650-1675 C.E.).

c. Tanjung Negeri Kingdom (1675-1725 C.E.)

  1. Maharaja Lela Utama (1675-1686 C.E.)
  2. Maharaja Wangsa Jaya (1686-1691 C.E.)
  3. Maharaja Muda Lela (1691-1720 C.E.)
  4. Maharaja Dinda II (1720-1725 C.E.).

d. Pelalawan Kingdom (1725-1946 C.E.)

  1. Maharaja Dinda II/Maharaja Dinda Perkasa/Maharaja Lela Dipati (1725-1750 C.E.)
  2. Maharaja Lela Bungsu (1750-1775 C.E.)
  3. Maharaja Lela II (1775-1798 C.E.)
  4. Sayid Abdurrahman/Syarif Abdurrahman Fakhruddin (1798-1822 C.E.)
  5. Syarif Hasyim (1822-1828 C.E.)
  6. Syarif Ismail (1828-1844 C.E.)
  7. Syarif Hamid (1844-1866 C.E.)
  8. Syarif Jafar (1866-1872 C.E.)
  9. Syarif Abubakar (1872-1886 C.E.)
  10. Tengku Sontol Said Ali (1886-1892 C.E.)
  11. Syarif Hasyim II (1892-1930 C.E.)
  12. Tengku Sayid Osman/Pemangku Sultan (1930-1940 C.E.)
  13. Syarif Harun/Tengku Sayid Harun (1940-1946 C.E.).

3. The Kingdom Period

The period of the Pelalawan Kingdom was divided in two decades: before and after the arrival of Islam. Before the arrival of Islam, this kingdom was named as Pekantua. While after the arrival of Islam, the name was changed thrice, from the Pekantua Kampar, Tanjung Negeri, to Pelalawan. This kingdom was established in 1380 to 1946 C.E. 

4. The Kingdom Territory

The suzerainty of the kingdom only encompassed the Pelalawan district.

5. The Kingdom Structure

In Pelalawan, a king was the supreme authority of the kingdom. Therefore, in the ruling of the kingdom, the king had been assisted by Mangkubumi and Orang Besar who ruled a definite district of the Pelalawan Kingdom. 

6. The Socio-Cultural Life

(In the process of data collecting)

(TN/trj/12/9-07)

Credit photo : Collection of Balai Kajian dan Pengembangan Budaya Melayu

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