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Malay history

Sanggau Kingdom

Sanggau is the name of a regency in West Kalimantan, not far from Pontianak. Before becoming as it is, Sanggau was a Malay kingdom that had existed since the 4th century. The name was given after plants that grew at the banks of Sekayam River, where the kingdom sat.

1. History

Sanggau is the name of a regency in West Kalimantan, not far from Pontianak. Before becoming as it is, Sanggau was a Malay kingdom that had existed since the 4th century. The name was given after plants that grew at the banks of Sekayam River, where the kingdom sat. In J.U. Lontaan’s Sejarah Hukum Adat dan Adat Istiadat Kalimantan Barat, it is mentioned that Sekayam River was where the entourage of Dara Nante, a noble woman from Sukadana Kingdom, Ketapang, stopped over during their search for her husband, Babai Cinga (J.U. Lontaan, 1975:170). However, there is another opinion that says “Sanggau” was taken from the name of Dayak Sanggau Ethnic Group, a Dayak clan from which Babai Cinga originated (Primaswolo in www.kr.co.id).

a. Early Period of Sanggau Kingdom

On their way sailing Sekayam River, Dara Nante’s entourage encountered two groups of Dayak Mualang people led by Patih Bardat and Patih Bangi. The Dayak Mualang processions were seeking for a place called Tampun Juah. The three groups joined up and sailing the river together. It turned out that Sekayam River had two affluents. The big entourage took one of the two branch streams, which was called Entabai River. It was a right decision because they finally found Tampun Juah in the upper course of the river. Fortunately, Dara Nante also met Babai Cinga in the place.

Tampun Juah was a way station as well as one of the places where Dayak people from different clans assembled when migrating. After staying for some time in Tampun Juah, Parih Bardat and Patih Bangi’s groups continued their journey for the upper course of Kapuas River. Later on, Singa Patih Bardat’s group generated Kematu, Benawas, Sekadau, and Melawang people while Patih Bangi’s brought forth Dayak Melawang people, from whom Sekadau Kings derived their origins (www.pontianakonline.com).

Dara Nante did not stay forever in Tampun Juah. She decided to head home for Sukadana through Sekayam River. On their way, however, in a place known as Labai Lawai, Dara Nante’s entourage decided to discontinue their journey to stay and set up a new kingdom which was later recognized as Sanggau Kingdom. The entourage had stayed there before when they found Babai Cinga.

Until today, the remnants of Sanggau Kingdom are still there. There are two sacred stones named Dara Nante Stone and Babai Cinga Stone. The stones lie on the ground and are covered with one meter high square yellow cloth. People still preserves an annual traditional rite of giving offerings for the sanctified stones (www.harianberkat.com).

Today’s descendants of Sanggau Kingdom believe that their kingdom was founded on April 7th 1310 AD, the day when Dara Nante was inaugurated as its first ruler. For that, on July 26th 2009, representatives of the three prevailing ethnic groups, namely Malay, Dayak, and Chinese, agreed on the decision to make April 7th the anniversary day of Sanggau, although it was only a declaration and not yet a government decree. The effort to get it promulgated by the government is still going up to now (www.borneotribune.com).

Sanggau Kingdom underwent a hard time when Dara Nante entrusted the throne to her confidant, Dakkudak. Apparently, Dakkudak was not up to the task. There were many cases that he could not deal with. In a crisis and inopportune situation, Dakkudak left Sanggau Kingdom for Semboja and Senggarong areas (Lontaan, 1975:171).

Dakkudak’s departure resulted in the government of Sanggau Kingdom being held up. The record about Sanggau Kingdom’s throne after Dakkudak’s tenure was yet to be clear, but in 1485 AD, Dayang Mas Ratna (1485-1528 AD), a woman who was connected by relationship of blood with Dara Nante, was appointed ruler of Sanggau. Dayang Mas Ratna’s first act as Queen was moving the seat of government from Labai Lawai to Mengkiang, a place near the estuary of Sekayam River. In her governance, Dayang Mas Ratna was helped by her husband, Nurul Kamal, also known as Abdurrahman, a descendant of Kyai Kerang from Banten (Lontaan, 1975:172). Although Nurul Kamal was presumed to be a Muslim, it remains unknown if Sanggau Kingdom had become an Islamic monarchy since Dayang Mas Ratna’s reign.

The successor of Dayang Mas Ratna was also a woman, named Dayang Puasa, who wore the title Nyai Sura (1528-1569 AD). In ruling the kingdom, Dayang Puasa was assisted by her husband, Abang Awal, a noble from Embau Kingdom in Kapuas Hulu. During Nyai Sura’s tenure, Sanggau Kingdom established an affinity with Sintang Kingdom, which was then ruled by King Juhair or Jubair. This shows that there was a familial relation between the kings of Sanggau and the kings of Sintang (Syahzaman & Hasanuddin, 2003:32).

Afterwards, Sanggau Kingdom was ruled by a king named Abang Gani who entitled Pangeran Adipati Kusumanegara Gani (1569-1614 AD). In this era, Sanggau Kingdom was in dispute with Matan Kingdom (Tanjungpura). The problem came up from the marriage of Dayang Seri Gemala, a Sanggau princess, with the King of Matan Kingdom. Several years after the marriage, it was said that the King of Matan got married again, resulting in the royal family of Sanggau Kingdom wanting to take Dayang Seri Gemala home. After a number of negotiations between both sides, Dayang Seri Gemala finally returned to Sanggau in peace. The people of Sanggau welcomed their princess cheerfully (Lontaan, 1975:172).

As King Abang Gani died in 1614 AD, the throne of Sanggau Kingdom was inherited by the crown prince, Abang Basun, who was entitled Pangeran Mangkubumi Pakunegara (1614-1658 AD). Pangeran Mangkubumi’s governance received total supports from his brother, Abang Abon entitled Pangeran Samabaya, and his cousin, Abang Guneng (A. Roffi Faturrahman, et.al., nd: 97).


Beringin Palace of Sanggau Sultanate

b. Sanggau Sultanate Period

Succeeding Pangeran Mangkubumi, Abang Bungsu (Uju) was on the throne since 1658 until 1690 AD. Abang Bungsu was the son of Pangeran Mangkubumi Pakunegara from his third wife who came from Tanah Silat, Kapuas Hulu. Abang Bungsu was crowned as Pangeran Mangkubumi did not have any other son from his previous two wives. Abang Bungsu was inaugurated to be King of Sanggau entitled Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin Kusumanegara. From Abang Bungsu’s name and title, it is now apparent that Sanggau monarchy had turned into a Muslim kingdom. The name Sanggau Kingdom was then changed to Sanggau Sultanate in accordance with its Islamic government.

Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin moved the seat of his government from Mengkiang to a place now the city of Sanggau. However, there were many of Abang Bungsu descendants that preferred staying in Mengkiang. Today, people believe that Abang Bungsu and Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin once paid a visit to Cirebon Sultanate in West Java. From there, Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin brought home three cannons named Bujang Juling, Dara Kuning, and Dara Hijau (Lontaan. 1975:173).

In 1690 AD, Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin passed away. The throne was inherited by his oldest son, Abang Kamaruddin or Abang Saka who was entitled Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin (1690-1722 AD). In governing, Sultan Akhmad was assisted by his younger brother, Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara. The two sons of the late Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin worked hand in hand to develop Sanggau Sultanate. Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin acted as head of government and wore the title Gusti, while Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara, who was entitled Ade, was appointed counselor of the sultanate and also ruler of the waters or coastal areas (Faturrahman, et.al., nd: 98).

There was time when Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin got ill, Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara called on him many times, urging the sultan to hand him the throne. At first, the request was not seriously considered by Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin, but Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara put pressure on the sultan until he finally granted what he wanted. In 1722 AD, Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara was inaugurated as Sultan of Sanggau entitled Sultan Zainuddin (1722-1741 AD). Besides, because he asked his brother everyday as to when he could become king, he was dubbed also as Abang Sebilang Hari (Lontaan, 1975:174).

After Sultan Zainuddin passed away, there was a little change in the succession procedure of Sanggau Sultanante. From then, the throne was held in turn between the children of Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin and children of Sultan Zainuddin. Moreover, they occupied different palaces, namely Beringin Palace (land area) for Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin’s descendants, and Kuta Palace (coastal area) for Sultan Zainuddin’s descendants.

The successor of Sultan Zainuddin (who was from Kuta Palace of the coastal area) was Abang Tabrani from the land area, entitled Pangeran Ratu Surya Negara (1741-1762 AD), who resided in Beringin Palace. At this time, Sanggau Sultanante maintained a very good relation with Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate. It was shown with the bestowal of a cannon named “Gentar Alam” from Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate to Sanggau Sultanate. In return, Pangeran Ratu Surya Negara sent blocks of iron woods which are still well kept in the palace of Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate (Faturrahman, et.al., nd: 98).

The relation between the two sultanates began to crack in 1778 AD. The ruling sultan of Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate had ambitions to expand his territory (Hasanuddin, 2000:17). Then, Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate conquered Sanggau Sultanate and took control of the trade route in Kapuas River. To legitimate his authority over Sanggau area, the Sultan of Kadriah Pontianak constructed a fort named Jambu Basrah in Simpang Labi Island, which belonged to Sanggau Sultanate (Ansar Rahman, 2000:81).

 

Pangeran Ratu Surya Negara died in 1762 AD. After that, t, the authority of Sanggau Sultanate was back to Kuta Palace and taken over by Panembahan Mohammad Thahir I Surya Negara (1762-1785 AD). Next, Sanggau Sultanate was ruled by Pangeran Usman (of Beringin Palace), entitled Panembahan Usman Paku Negara (1785-1812 AD). During his tenure, Sanggau Sultanate still established a familial relation with Sekadau Kingdom through marriage. Ratu Godok, the daughter of Panembahan Usman Paku Negara, got married with Sekadau King (Lontaan, 1975:174). Meanwhile, in 1812, there was a dispute between Sanggau Sultanate and Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate. This time, Sanggau Sultanate managed to cope with Kadriah Pontianak Sultanate’s attack (Lontaan, 1975:174).

After the era of Panembahan Usman Paku Negara, the throne was assumed by Panembahan Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (1812-1823 AD) of Kuta Sultanate. Panembahan Mohammad Ali Mangku Negara’s reign ended in 1823, and was succeeded by a representative of Beringin Palace, namely Sultan Ayub Paku Negara, who ruled Sanggau Sultanate until 1828. During his reign, Sultan Ayub initiated the construction of Jami’ Syuhada Mosque which was finished about 1826. Besides, according to a piece of a series of articles entitled “Melihat Perkembangan Sanggau dari Masa ke Masa”, Sultan Ayub moved the seat of his government to Kampung Kantuk (Bassilius, in Pontianak Pos, September 28th 2004).

Sultan Ayub’s brother, Ade Makhmud, was crowned Sultan of Sanggau entitled Panembahan Mogammad Kusuma Negara. The appointing of Ade Akhmad, who was from Beringin Palace, was due to the crown prince from Kuta Palace being underage. As Ade Akhmad or Panembahan Mogammad Kusuma Negara passed away in 1860, it was the turn of Kuta Palace representative to rule and so crowned Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II (1860-1876 AD). Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II once settled the legal territorial borders between Sanggau Sultanate and Brunei Sultanate. However, the bordering marks have not been traced and discovered as yet (Lontaan, 1975:175). 

During the reign of Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II, the Dutch set foot in Sanggau Sultanate. At the beginning, the Dutch arrival was welcomed by people and the royal family. However, they made use of the people’s hospitality to ask for permission to stay in Sanggau. Their request was granted by Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II. Thereafter, the Dutch stayed and started to exert influence in the sultanate.

Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II passed away on March 23rd 1876. He was replaced by Ade Sulaimen (of Beringin Palace) entitled Panembahan Haji Sulaiman Paku Negara (1876-1908). It was since then that the Dutch took much control of the government of Sanggau Sultanate, including inaugurating, dethroning, and replacing a sultan. There were also signed a number of agreements between the sultanate and the colonial.

In 1877, for example, there was a contract for land rent between the sultanate and the Dutch signed by Governor General of Dutch-Indies J.W. van Lansberge (1875-1881) and Panembahan Muhammad Saleh (Mangkubumi), Pangeran Ratu Mangku Negara (king of Semerangkai), Pangeran Mas Paduka Putera (king of Balai Karangan), and Pangeran Adi Ningrat (minister of Sanggau Sultanate). In the sultanate, it was settled that Tanjung Sekayam was rented to the Dutch (Basilius, in Pontianak Pos, September 28th 2004).

After Panembahan Haji Sulaiman Paku Negara passed away in 1908, coronated as sultan was Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (of Kuta Palace) who ruled up to 1915 (Faturrahman, et.al., nd: 98). Then, the next Crown of Sanggau Sultanate was Pangeran Gusti Mohammad Said Paku Negara (of Beringin Palace). The era of Pangeran Gusti Mohammad Said Paku Negara ended in 1921 as he was dethroned by the Dutch. The Dutch, who had managed to get into every matter of the sultanate, coronated Panembahan Thahir III Surya Negara (of Kuta Palace). The reign of Panembahan Thahir III Surya Negara lasted until 1941. He was replaced by Gusti Mohammad Arif Paku Negara from the family of Beringin Palace.

In 1942, the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese. It was the beginning of Japanese occupation in Indonesian archipelago, including in Sanggau Sultanate. Gusti Mohammad Arif Paku Negara only ruled for a year because in 1942, he was captured and killed by the Japanese army. After that, under the influence of Japanese authority, Ade Marhaban Saleh was appointed the Head of Adat of Sanggau Sultanate (Faturrahman, et.al., nd: 98). Like the previous sultan, Ade Marhaban Saleh was from Beringin Palace. This abnormality was then understandable because it was indeed pressure from the Japanese. Ade Marhaban Saleh was replaced by Panembahan Gusti Ali Akbar, still from Beringin palace, in 1944. Panembahan Gusti Ali Akbar assumed the position of the Head of Adat of Sanggau Sultanate in the last years of Japanese occupation in Indonesia.

On August 15th 1945, the Japanese surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. Two days later, Indonesia declared its independence. However, in September 1945, the Dutch, who were one of the winning allies in World War II, came back to Indonesia to regain their control, including over Sanggau Sultanate. Therefore, the Dutch then sent their representative named Riekerk to hold the position as Residential Assistant in Sanggau. Riekerk, who came in Sanggau along with full-armed troops, dethroned Panembahan Gusti Ali Akbar and inaugurated Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Taufik Surya Negara as a replacement (Lontaan, 1975:177). Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Taufik Surya Negara was from Kuta Palace.

Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Taufik Surya Negara governed until Sanggau was changed into a swapraja (autonomous area) under Indonesian government. Thus, Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Taufik Surya Negara was the last Sultan of Sanggau (Basilius, in Pontianak Pos, October 3rd 2004). On May 2nd 1960, a takeover of the position of Head of Sanggau Government to M. Th. Djaman, Head of the Second Level Region of Sanggau, took place. From this point, the continuation of Sanggau monarchy got bogged down as it underwent a status change to becoming the capital of Sanggau Sultanate in West Kalimantan Province.

After 49 years of suspended animation, on July 26th 2009, Sanggau Sultanate revived despite not having any political control and holding power only in cultural matters. On that day, Pangeran Ratu H. Gusti Arman Surya Negara was coronated as Sultan of Sanggau. The grand ceremony was attended by a number of prominent figures, such as Sultan Iskandar Machmud Badarudin from Palembang Darussalam Sultanate, Pangeran Ratu Gusti Suryansyah from Ismayana Palace, and Sanggau Regent, Ir. H. Setiman H. Sudin  (www.equator-news.com).


Kuta Palace in Sanggau Sultanate

2. Lineage

Below is a list of rulers of Sanggau Kingdom/Sultanate as can be found in J.U. Lontaan’s Sejarah Hukum Adat dan Adat Istiadat Kalimantan Barat and in an article entitled “Kesultanan Sanggau” written by A. Roffi Faturrahman, et.al. (nd) included in the book Istana-istana di Kalimantan Barat:

  • Dara Nante (1310)
  • Dakkudak
  • Dayang Mas Ratna (1485-1528)
  • Dayang Puasa or Nyai Sura (1528-1569)
  • Abang Gani entitled Pangeran Adipati Kusumanegara Gani (1569-1614)
  • Abang Basun entitled Pangeran Mangkubumi Pakunegara (1614-1658)
  • Abang Bungsu (Uju) entitled Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin Kusumanegara (1658-1690)
  • Abang Kamaruddin entitled Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin (1690-1722)
  • Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara entitled Sultan Zainuddin (1722-1741)
  • Abang Tabrani entitled Pangeran Ratu Surya Negara (1762-1785)
  • Pangeran Usman entitled Panembahan Usman Paku Negara (1785-1812)
  • Panembahan Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (1812-1823)
  • Sultan Ayub Paku Negara (1812-1828)
  • Panembahan Mohammad Kusuma Negara (1812-1860)
  • Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II (1860-1876)
  • Panembahan Haji Sulaiman Paku Negara (1876-1908)
  • Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (1808-1915)
  • Pangeran Gusti Mohammad Said Paku Negara (1915-1921)
  • Panembahan Thahir Surya Negara (1912-1941)
  • Gusti Mohammad Arif (1941-1942)
  • Ade Marhaban Saleh (1942-1944)
  • Panembahan Gusti Ali Akbar (1944-1945)
  • Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Taufik Surya Negara (1945)
  • Pangeran Ratu H. Gusti Arman Surya Negara (2009-…)


The Lineage of Sanggau Sultanate until 1945

3. Governmental System

The governmental system of Sanggau Kingdom in the beginning or since first founded by Dara Nante in 1310 was based on local traditional rules and laws. The temporary successor of Dara Nante, Dakkudak, apparently did not manage Sanggau Sultanate well. Dakkudak could not enforce traditional laws as it was supposed to be. This failure made Dakkudak decide to leave Sanggau Kingdom.

The successor of Dakkudak was Dara Nante’s descendant named Dayang Mas Ratna (1485-1528). Since then, the throne of Sanggau Kingdom was held by people who were related by blood. In governing, Dayang Mas Ratna was assisted by her husband, Nurul Kamal. This happened also during the governance of Dayang Puasa or Nyai Tua who succeeded Dayang Mas Ratna. During his regime in Sanggau Sultanate, Dayang Puasa was assisted by her husband, Abang Awal (Faturrahman, et. al., nd: 97).

Since the end of Dayang Puasa’s tenure, Sanggau Kingdom was always ruled by men. Usually, the King or Sultan of Sanggau was helped by a counselor entitled Ade. Some these counselors were even crowned as ruler of Sanggau. Some of them are Panembahan Ratu Surya Negara (1722-1741) who succeeded Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin (1690-1722) and Panembahan Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (1812-1823) who succeeded Sultan Ayub Paku Negara (1812-1828). “Ade” title holders were usually relatives of the incumbent ruler of Sanggau Sultanate.

After the reign of Ratu Surya Negara or Sultan Zainuddin (1722-1741), there was a change in the succession process. Since then, the throne was taken on in turn by the descendants of Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin and Sultan Zainuddin—both of them were the sons of the previous ruler, Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin Kusumanegara (1658-1690). Moreover, they occupied different palaces, namely Beringin Palace (land area) for Sultan Akhmad Kamaruddin’s descendants, and Kuta Palace (coastal area) for Sultan Zainuddin’s descendants. This succession method went on until Sanggau Sultanate merged and became a part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia—of course there were exceptions due to special cases, for example, the sultan-in-turn had not come of age or bad political situation.

Sanggau Sultanate recognized laws based on traditional and Islamic laws. However, since the Dutch excreted influence in the sultanate, every policy had to be first approved by the Dutch-Indies authority. Sanggau Sultanate also had Mahkamah Syariah (Court of Sharia) or Raad Agama which was led by haji Muhammad Yusuf or Pangeran Tumenggung Suria Igama and Ade Ahmaden Baduwi or Raden Penghulu Suria Igama (Basilius in Pontianak Pos, October 1st 2004). The establishment of this Raad Agama was actually the Dutch’s strategy to intervene in religious matters (Islam) which had used to be under the absolute authority of Sanggau Sultan.

On October 30th 1932, there were amendments to the traditional laws that prevailed in Sanggau Sultanate. The laws which contained 34 articles were increased to 70 articles. In the new laws was mentioned that any religious matter was not only settled by the Sultan of Sanggau, but also by Raad Agama. Furthermore, Raad Agama also took care of other matters such as marriage, divorce, marital reconciliation, will and testament, Ramadan determination, fardlu kifayah (communal religious duty), as well as imam, khatib (preacher), and bilal (caller to player) assignment (Basilius, in Pontianak Pos, October 1st 2004).

The Dutch tried to take control of Sanggau Sultanate government. The most obvious instance was in the succession process, wherein the Dutch had a major say. For example, they inaugurated Panembahan Gusti Mohammad Ali Surya Negara (1808-1915) as replacement for Panembahan Haji Sulaiman Paku Negara (1876-1908).  Those who refused the coronation, one of them was Pangeran Dipati Ibnu, were exiled to Java by the Dutch. Their intervention in the process of succession of Sanggau head went on until 1941.

After the Dutch recognized the sovereignty of Indonesia in 1949, Sanggau Sultanate no longer had political power, because of the integration with the new republic, and became an autonomous region. Since May 2 1960, Sanggau Sultanate changed into the regent government of Sanggau Regency which was situated in West Kalimantan Province (Lontaan, 1975:177). After a long rest for 49 years, on July 26th 2009, Sanggau Sultanate was revived, although no longer possesses authority in politic and only deals with traditional matters. On that day, Pangeran Ratu H. Gusti Arman Surya Negara was inaugurated as the Sultan of Sanggau (www.equator-news.com).


The Inauguration of Pangeran Ratu H. Gusti Arman Surya Negara

4. Territory

Since first established by Dara Nante in 1310, the Kingdom/Sultanate of Sanggau had undergone capital movements several times. In the beginning, the seat of government of Sanggau Kingdom was in Labai Lawai near Sekayam River. Then, during the era of Dayang Mas Ratna (1485-1528), a descendant of Dara Nante, the seat of government was moved from Labai Lawai to Mengkiang in the estuary of Sekayam River. The government of Sanggau Kingdom/Sultanate in Mengkiang lasted until the reign of Abang Bungsu or Sultan Mohammad Jamaluddin Kusumanegara (c. 1658-1690), who moved the kingdom’s capital from Mengkiang to a place that is now known as the city of Sanggau (Lontaan, 1975:173).

According to a series of articles entitled “Melihat Perkembangan Sanggau dari Masa ke Masa”, it was mentioned that Sultan Ayub Paku Negara (1823-1828) moved the kingdom’s seat of government to Kampung Kantuk (Basilius, in Pontianak Pos, September 28th 2004). Meanwhile, Lontaan (1975) mentioned that during the tenure of Panembahan Mohammad Thahir II (1860-1876), there were settled territorial borders between Sanggau Sultanate and Brunei Sultanate although the boundary marks have not been discovered yet (Lontaan, 1975:175).

Besides, although it was not a big monarchy, there were some subordinate areas occupied by Sanggau Sultanate. In each of the area, a sultanate representative was appointed by the Sultan of Sanggau. Some of the areas were Semerangkai, Balai Karangan, Tanjung Sekayam (Basiliius, in Pontianak Pos, September 28th 2004).

Generally, the territory of Sanggau Kingdom/Sultanate was not really different with that of current Sanggau Regency in West Kalimantan. It was apparent in the fact that Sanggau Regency’s territory was based on that of Swapraja Sanggau which was a transformation of Sanggau Kingdom/Sultanate. Sanggau Sultanate was a region in the middle north of West Kalimantan. In the North, Sanggau borders with Serawak (Malaysia), in the South with Ketapang Regency, in the West with Landak Regency, and in the East with Sintang and Sekadau Regencies.

(Iswara N. Raditya/Ker/12/10-2010)

Translation by Reza Daffi (trans/02/06-2010)

References:

A. Roffi Faturrahman, et.al., nd. “Sanggau Sultanate”, in Istana-istana di Kalimantan Barat. Pontianak: Inventarisasi Istana di Kalimantan Barat.

Ansar Rahman, et.al., 2000. Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadri, perpektif sejarah berdirinya Kota Pontianak. Pontianak: Romeo Grafika – Pemerintah Kota Pontianak.

“Batu Keramat Daranante dan Babai Cingak”, in Harian Berkat, May 31st 2009.

Basilius, “Masa kemerdekaan, semangat juang tak padam; Melihat perkembangan Sanggau dari masa ke masa (10)”, in Pontianak Pos, October 3rd 2004.

Basilius, “Masa kemerdekaan, semangat juang tak padam; Melihat perkembangan Sanggau dari masa ke masa (8)”, in Pontianak Pos, October 1st 2004.

Basilius, “Masa kemerdekaan, semangat juang tak padam; Melihat perkembangan Sanggau dari masa ke masa (5)”, in Pontianak Pos, September 28th 2004.

“Gusti Arman, Raja baru Sanggau”, downloaded on January 28th 2010, from http://www.borneotribune.com.

Hasanuddin, 2000. Pontianak, 1771-1900: Suatu tinjauan sejarah social ekonomi. Pontianak: Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Pontianak.

J.U. Lontaan, 1975. Sejarah-hukum adat dan adat istiadat Kalimantan-Barat. Kalbar: Pemda Tingkat I Kalimantan Barat.

“Melawat ke Sanggau, tak sekedar pintu ke Serawak”, downloaded on January 28th 2010 from http://www.kr.co.id.

“Penobatan Raja Keraton Sanggau Meriah”, downloaded on January 28th 2010 from http://www.equator-news.com.

“Sejarah Kerajaan Sekadau”, downloaded on January 28th 2010 from http://www.pontianakonline.com.

Syahzaman & Hasanuddin, 2003. “Sintang dalam lintasan sejarah”. Pontianak: Romeo Grafika.

“Tiga etnis deklarasikan HUT Sanggau”, downloaded on January 28th 2010 from http://www.borneotribune.com.

Source of Photos:

http://www.pontianakonline.com.

A. Roffi Faturrahman, et.al., nd. “Kesultanan Sanggau”, in Istana-istana di Kalimantan Barat. Pontianak: Inventarisasi Istana di Kalimantan Barat.

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Comment of "sanggau kingdom"

18 Jul 2011. lady
knp gx bisa di copy ya..? saya mau mengambil bahan ini sebagai reverensi karya ilmiah saya... kalau bisa didunlud kasi tau caranya gimana terimakasih atas bantuannya.
13 Feb 2012. Tyo Rizky Pratama
Semoga kesultanan surya negara di bawah pimpinan yg mulia PANGERAN RATU H. GUSTI ARMAN SURYA NEGARA selalu di berkahi oleh ALLAH SWT. AMIN. melayu jaye selalu..
19 Nov 2012. Abang Zaini. S.I.Kom
sungguh berkesan dunia perjuangan melayu setelah saya liat perjuangan perjuangan kaum melayu zaman dahulu nama saya abang zaini (abang karena saya masih keturunan kerajaan sanggau. tapi saya tidak pernah menghadiri kegiatan kegiatan kraton saat ini karena saya liat kraton saat ini sanggat berubah misi perjuangan ya untuk rakyat banyak malah untuk kekuasaan dan untuk politik. buat pangeran ratu H. gusti arman surya negara yang saya mulyakan kenapa kami yang masih keturunan kerajaan sanggau malah tidak pernah raja perhatikan kami dan menggap kami sebagai keluarga besar keraton sanggau. undangan juga kami tidak pernah mendapatkan ( tapi saya tidak mengarapkan cuma kasi contoh aj ) kami sadar kami orang miskin tapi asal raja tausaja seperti yang orang tua saya ceritakan alm (galuh junarah ) dan sejarah nya saya masih orang darah keraton. kami tidak mengarap apa apa . apakah ini yang di namakan raja. cuma sebagai koreksi aj pembaca pasti tau maknanya. buat raja sanggau yang sekarang jadilah raja yang seperti raja yang seperti raja kraton yogyakarta saat ini. sebelumnya saya minta maaf. assalamualikum. semoga dunia melayu menjadi dunia yang penuh perdamayan
15 Apr 2014. Ade Mahdaniansyah
Ass. wr. wb. Mohon pencerahan untuk sudara2 keraton sanggau. saya Ade Mahdaniansyah bin Ade Mahdimin bin Ade Mahidin (beristrikan Hj. Ence' Aminah) bin Abang Ahmad Dari (beristrikan Utin Intan Terpilih) bin Abang Maja (beristrikan Dayang Siti Aisyah) bin Daeng Pagaok bergelar Daeng Salo, menurut org tua saya, kami merupakan darah keturunan keraton sanggau, namun sampai saat ini, saya masih blm mendapatkan info silsilah yg sahih. utk pengurus keraton sanggau yg sekarang, alangkah lebih baiknya apa bila masih dpt menjaga dan melestarikan peninggalan sejarah dan budaya warisan keraton sanggau, dan tidak melupakan saudara2 diluar sana. trims. Wassalam.
11 May 2015. handi setya laksana
Asslmkm..wr..wb... Saya dari Purwakarta - Jawa Barat Kebetulan di makam umum Cipaisan Purwakarta Jawa Barat tepatnya disamping rumah orang tua saya,,, ada makam keturunan dari Kesultanan Sanggau yang bernama H Gusti Ahmad Putra Negara putra dari Sultan Gusti Muhammad Thahir II...Mohon Kepada Keturunan nya beliau agar lebih merawat makam beliau.... Wassalam wr..wb

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