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08 oktober 2008 06:16

Kitab al-Taqwim wa al-Siyam by Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin

Kitab al-Taqwim wa al-Siyam by Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin

Compared to other regions in Indonesia, Minangkabau has unique tradition regarding the writing of manuscripts; the tradition is still live here until recently. I found some of them written even in 2001 on modern papers.

Kitab al-Taqwim wa al-Siyam is one of the contemporary manuscripts, deals with the calendar system of Shattari people, especially to make certain about the beginning or ending of fasting in Ramadan. This manuscript belongs to Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin al-Khatib, who also acts as the author.

The colophon at the end of the text shows clear information relating to the authorship, date, and place of production:

“Maka, selesai ditulis buku Taqwim wa al-Siyam ini dengan taufik dan hidayat daripada Allah Swt pada hari Isnain, Jumadil Akhir, tahun 1406 H/1986 M, pada kampung Batang Kabung. Ditulis oleh Haji Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin…” (p. 103).

The manuscript contains 103 pages with 19 until 21 lines per page. The first page is an exception; it contains just 13 lines, and illustrated by an Arabic phrase: al-taqwim tariqi (taqwim is my way), followed by basmala, and words Allah, Muhammad, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, dan ‘Ali.

The text is written in Malay language using easy readable Jawi character. On page 25, there is an illustration of table contains taqwim formula.

In general, Kitab al-Taqwim wa al-Siyam deals with the principle of counting months (hisab taqwim) to find out the Islamic calendar (qamariyya). Specifically, this work explains guidelines of how to determine the beginning of fasting in Ramadan and the first date of Shawwal through a method called ru‘ya al-hilal (witnessing the moon), with referring to primary Islamic sources, especially the Prophet Tradition (hadis Nabi). Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin al-Khatib said:

“Adapun kemudian daripada itu, maka inilah suatu kitab yang menerangkan masalah hisab taqwim dan masalah puasa ramadhan, dan hal-hal yang bersangkut dengan keduanya…” (p. 2).

Quoting the Prophet, the author suggests that the method of hisab taqwim is valid to determine all Islamic months, except Ramadhan and Shawwal. Both should be identified through ru‘ya al-hilal, instead of hisab taqwim, due to a particular hadis regarding it (pp. 36-38).

In addition, this is important in the term of Minangkabau specifically, he elaborates that the method he explained is one of the characteristics of Muslims, who practice Shattariyya order. Therefore, in this works, he repeats several times that the Shattari Muslims are those:

“…yang bermazhab Shafi‘i, beri‘tikad ahl al-sunnah wa al-jama‘ah, bertasawuf atas tarekat Shattari, membilang bulan memakai hisab taqwim, dan memasuki puasa dengan ru‘ya al-hilal, artinya melihat bulan di malam ketiga puluh Sha‘ban…” (p. 72).

Furthermore, the author insists that the hisab taqwim and ru‘ya al-hilal are integrated Islamic teachings of Shaikh Burhanuddin Ulakan, the leading Shattari ulema, a pupil of Aceh ulema, Shaikh Abdurrauf Ali al-Jawi. In this regards, the author said:

“Beliau Shaikh Burhanuddin menuntut ilmu pada Shaikh Abdurrauf adalah bermacam-macam ilmu, di antaranya yaitu ilmu tafsir, fikih, nahw sarf (gramatika Arab, pen.), tauhid dan tasawuf. Tasawufnya atas tarekat Shattari, dan ilmu untuk mencari tanggal satu hari bulan arab yang bernama hisab taqwim…” (p. 69).

In Minangkabau, the dissemination of Shaikh Burhanuddin‘s teaching, including hisab taqwim, was carried out by his pupils, among them are:

Shaikh Datuk Maruhun Panjang from Padang Ganting Batusangkar, who disseminated the teaching of hisab taqwim to Tanah Datar;

Shaikh Tarapang (Shaikh Pandan Baico) from Kubung Tiga Belas Solok, who disseminated the teaching to Solok and Sijunjung;

Shaikh Abdul Muhsin (Shaikh Supayang) from Supayang, who disseminated the teaching to Alahan Panjang Muara Labuh and Lubuk Gadang;

Shaikh Muhammad Nasir (Shaikh Surau Baru) from Koto Tangah Padang, who disseminated the teaching around Koto Tangah Pauh Lubuk Bagalung Padang;

Shaikh Buyung Muda (Shaikh Bayang) from Bayang Bandar, who disseminated the teaching in the entire Bandar Sibupuluh and Kuraji; and

Shaikh Jalaluddin Kapeh Kapeh from Paninjauan Padang Panjang, who disseminated the teaching to Luhak Agam and Luhak Lima Puluh Kota Payakumbuh.

By the dissemination of Shaikh Burhanuddin‘s teaching to regions in Minangkabau, Imam Maulana Abdul Manaf Amin suggests in this work that:

“…waktu itu seluruh Minangkabau satu mazhab, yaitu mazhab Imam Shafi‘i, satu iktikad yaitu iktikad ahl al-sunnah wa al-jama‘ah, satu tasawuf yaitu atas tarekat Shattari, dan satu bilangan bulan yaitu hisab taqwim, dan satu cara memasuki puasa, yaitu dengan ru‘ya al-hilal, artinya melihat bulan di malam ketiga puluh, tidak ada pertikaian…(p. 73).

According to him, the controversy concerning the beginning of fasting in Ramadan and Shawwal, just appeared in 1207 H/1792 M when the Naqshabandiyya order came to Minangkabau. He wrote:

“…kemudian pada tahun 1207 H, duduklah mengajar di Kampung Cangking Koto Candung Ampat Angkat Bukit Tinggi, seorang ulama yang dimasyhurkan orang dengan Tuan Shaikh Koto Tuo (Tuan Shaikh Cangking) yang mengajarkan agama Islam yang bermazhab Imam Shafi‘i, dan beriktikad ahl al-sunna wa al-jama‘a, tetapi dalam tasawuf atas tarekat Naqshabandi, dan untuk memasuki puasa memakai bilangan lima tidak memakai ru‘ya…Semenjak itulah baru ada pertikaian tarekat dan pertikaian puasa di Minangkabau yang sebelumnya hanya satu saja pengamalan penduduk di Minangkabau ini, tidak ada pertikaiannya…(pp. 73-74).

In the end of the text, the author puts forward about a statement that the Shattariyya order of Shaikh Burhanuddin Ulakan doesn‘t teach and develop anymore a doctrine of the unity of God (wahda al-wujud). He explains that:

“…ulama yang menuduh tarekat Shaikh Burhanuddin berfaham wahda al-wujud adalah kurang tahu pada sejarah Shaikh Burhanuddin…di sini kita jelaskan supaya jangan sama pula kita dengan ulama yang buta sejarah itu…(p. 74).

This statement is quiet interesting, because, as far as the Shattariyya‘s teaching concerns, Shaikh Abdurrauf Ali al-Jawi, as a main khalifa of this order in the Malay-Indonesian world, didn‘t reject the doctrine, but carrying out a reinterpretation to make harmony between the Islamic mysticism and Islamic jurisprudence (regarding this reinterpretation of wahda al-wujud in detail, see Tanbih al-Mashi in Fathurahman 1999).

Sumber : http://naskahkuno.blogspot.com


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